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MODELING AND MONITORING THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SOUND IN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SPACE

Dick Botteldooren
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Dick Botteldooren is full time research professor in acoustics at Ghent University and is the head of the Acoustics Research Group (12 to 15 researchers). His current research interests include environmental noise, numerical modelling, and applied acoustics. Research on environmental noise includes outdoor sound propagation in urban and rural area, noise mapping, and modelling noise effects including soundscape and quiet areas. Numerical modelling research has mainly focussed on time domain methods and their use in outdoor atmosphere. He is Editor-in-Chief of Acta Acustica united with Acustica, the journal of the European Acoustics Association (until Jan 2014); he is President of the Belgian Acoustical Society, Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and member of several international scientific societies: Belgian Acoustical Society, European Acoustical Association, and IEEE.
Dick Botteldooren is the author of about 90 publications in peer reviewed journals (Web of Science h-index 15) and several hundred publications in conference proceedings.

Noise mapping has now become a common method to assess urban sound environments. Strategic maps such as the ones required by the Environmental Noise Directive give a good impression on the impact of human activities on the living environment. However, they do not include all available scientific knowledge with regard to the causal path that lead to unwanted or wanted effects of environmental sound on humans. In this contribution we will discuss the available scientific knowledge on perception of sound and proven and potential effects gathered either by psychophysical, epidemiological, or bio-monitoring methods. We will then explore the state of the art in embedding this knowledge in both modeling and monitoring the effects of environmental sound. A clear distinction is needed between impact of sound at home, in and around the dwelling, including the quiet side on the one hand and the public space on the other. Public space covers restorative environments such as tranquil parks but also tranquil routes, areas of cultural importance, and even commercial environments. Future developments related to smart cities, sensor networks, and research needs will be discussed.



POROUS MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION VIA ACOUSTICAL METHODS

Kirill Horoshenkov
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Professor Horoshenkov holds a MEng in Electro-Acoustics and Ultrasonic Engineering from Moscow University for Radioengineering, Electronics and Automatics (Russia) and PhD in Computational and Experimental Acoustics from the University of Bradford (UK). Before accepting the position of a Personal Chair at the University of Sheffield in May 2013 worked at the University of Bradford where he progressed from a research assistant to a full professor.Professor Horoshenkov's main research interests are in novel sensors for water industry, novel acoustic materials and material characterisation methods. His other area of work relates to noise control, audio-visual interactions and design of nature-inspired noise control solutions. A majority of funding for his research comes from the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), the Royal Society, European Union and the industry. Professor Horoshenkov is a member of the EPSRC-sponsored Pennine Water Group at Sheffield, Chairman of the Research Coordination Committee of the Institute of Acoustics , member of the EPSRC Peer Review College, member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (JASA), Journal of Applied Acoustics and Acta Acustica United with Acustica. He has authored and co-authored 2 books, over 140 journal and conference papers, and 9 patents. In recognition of his contribution to the field of acoustics he was awarded the prestigious Tyndall Medal by the Institute of Acoustics in 2006. He is a founder of Acoutechs Limited, a spin-off University company, which was established in 2000 to exploit the results of his research related to Patent WO/2003/069595 on novel acoustic material manufacturing technology. This technology is now licensed to Armacell and exploited globally with an average marked value of £10M per annum. More recently, he received a Brian Mercer Award from the Royal Society of London www.youtube.com to exploit commercially the results of his other research on novel acoustic instrumentation for rapid inspection of underground pipes (Patent WO/2010/020817). This technology resulted in the new University spin-off company, Acoustic Sensing Technology Limited, of which he is a founder. This enterprise is sponsored by The North West Fund for Energy & Environmental.

University of Sheffield, Department of Mechanical Engineering

The purpose of this talk is to present and discuss a range of in-situ and laboratory methods which can be used to measure the morphological characteristics of porous materials. In the case of foams and granular media used for noise control applications the most common of these characteristics are pore size and its distribution, porosity and pore connectivity. In the case of fibrous media, the most useful non-acoustical characteristics are the fibre size and packing density. In the case of outdoor surfaces such as gravel, sandy soils and agricultural land which can be partly saturated with water, it is of direct interest to measure remotely the degree of water saturation, hydraulic permeability and pore size gradient. In the case of materials with good physicochemical properties, it is of interest to determine their internal pore surface area, porosity and pore size scales. In this paper the existing and newly emerging acoustic characterisation methods are discussed in terms of their complexity, accuracy and sample requirements. The application of these methods relate to traditional needs to measure and predict the in-situ performance of noise control elements and outdoor surfaces, to ensure the quality control during material manufacturing process and to be able to measure non-invasively the micro- and nano-structure of porous media which is used in catalytic filters, electric capacitors and for gas storage.



ACOUSTICS OF ITALIAN OPERA HOUSES: A CULTURAL HERITAGE

Roberto Pompoli
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Graduated in mechanical engineering at the University of Bologna in 1970, he was assistant professor of Applied Physics from 1973 to 1983 later associated professor from 1983 to 1986 at the same University of Bologna. Full professor in 1986, he moved first to the University of Cagliari and later on to the University of Parma. From 1991 he is full professor of Applied Physics at the University of Ferrara. He received a PhD degree in 1983 from the Institute of Sound and Vibration (ISVR). Since 1993 Head of the Engineering Department of the University of Ferrara. Founder and Director of the School of Acoustics from 1994 to now. From 2002 to 2008 Dean of Engineering Faculty at the University of Ferrara.
His research activity has been mainly devoted to room and building acoustics and to the field of noise control engineering. Author of about 150 papers published in national and international journals and conference proceedings. Visiting Professor at the Graduate Program in Acoustics - State College (PA) - Penn State University in 1983, at Stanford University in 1985 and at the University of Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1986. Member of the Editorial Board of Applied Acoustics from 1983 to 1986. Consultant on Education in Acoustics for the Board of European Acoustics Association (EAA). Member of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). Active member in the Acoustic Commission of the Italian Standardisation Institution (UNI); chairman of the working group on environmental noise. Head of the Italian delegation in many plenary meetings of CEN/TC 126 and ISO/TC43/SC1 and SC2; member of WG 1 of CEN/TC126 and chairman of the Ad Hoc Group 4 of the same WG1
From 1984 to 1986 secretary of the Italian Acoustic Association (AIA); since 1991 in charge of the Environmental Acoustic Group of AIA. President of the Italian Acoustic Association (AIA) from 2002 to 2005.


Engineering Department
University of Ferrara
Italy

The Italian Opera House (IOH) has been the most stable home for opera for about four cen-turies. In fact from the second half of XVII century to early XX century theaters in Italy were built with rings of boxes piled up and with a gallery on top: this design was exported in nearly every European capital during the XVIII century. Nowadays it can be estimated that, ranging from the smallest one (1000 m3) to the largest one (10.000 m3), more than 800 IOH are still active and spread all over the country. All these buildings need restoration, renovation and, in some cases, complete reconstruction as for Teatro Petruzzelli in Bari and "La Fenice" in Venice destroyed by the fire in 1991 and in 1996 respectively. These events deprived not only the cities of Bari and Venice, but the whole word, of masterpieces of architecture and acoustics and raised the idea and the awareness that the acoustics of historical spaces for opera and music is a cultural heritage which has to be investigated, protected and enhanced. From here the increasing interest in understanding the unique acoustics of IOH with his very special future of rings of boxes: the "palchetti". In this work the background for the box design will be outlined with reference to the motivations that led to adopt this solution and to the consequences for the acoustics. Some of the open research issues will be addressed too.



EXPERIENCING NOISE-REDUCING PAVEMENTS (ON THE INTERACTION OF ACOUSTICS, ROAD CONSTRUCTION, PSYCHOLOGY, LEGISLATION AND POLICY)

Wim van Keulen
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Wim van Keulen has 20 years of experience in the field of developing and applying noise-reducing pavements. He received bachelor degrees in psychology, theology, and law and bachelor, master, and PhD degrees in psychophysics. In 2003 he started VANKEULEN consultancy with the accent on noise-reducing pavements. He developed the majority of low-noise pavements in the Netherlands and published about 150 papers. He is visiting professor at a number of universities in the Netherlands and abroad. In collaboration with the Technical University of Delft he developed a very accurate model for tyre-road noise that is applied for the development of various kinds of pavements. He developed a number of measurement methods for low-noise pavements.


VANKEULEN advies bv

In various policies and local legislation it is stated that the noise levels from road systems have to diminish. In most cases, noise reduction at the source is preferred. In case of road traffic noise this requires the application of low-noise pavements. Low-noise pavements have proven to be very effective and efficient in reducing (annoyance from) road traffic noise. Not only do they reduce absolute noise levels, but, probably more important, their subjective impression is considered to be very positive and often seem to contradict the ob-jectively measured noise level reductions. Additionally, the durability of low-noise pave-ments is still a major problem, which limits their application significantly. From practice it has been shown that technological research alone is not sufficient to prolong their durability. A number of aspects from acoustics, psychology, policy and legal contracts facilitate the quest for durable noise-reducing pavements.



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF BEM AND FEM AND THEIR APPLICATION TO REAL LIFE ACOUSTIC PROBLEMS

Otto von Estorff
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Current Research: Discretization Methods (FEM, BEM, Meshless Approaches), Fluid/Structure Interaction, Acoustics,Soil/Structure Interaction, Wave Propagation
Since 2012 President of Northern Institute of Technology Management, Hamburg
2010 - 2013 President of the German Acoustical Society
Since 2008 Coordinator of the TUHH Research Center Aeronautics
Since 2005 Deputy Head of the Research Training Group "Harbours for Container Ships of Future Generations"
2005 - 2010 Member of the EPSRC Peer Review College, UK
Since 2003 Founder and CEO of Novicos GmbH, Hamburg
Since 2003 Head of the Institute of Modelling and Computation, Hamburg University of Technology
Since 2001 Member of the Steering Committee of the Acoustics Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Science
2001 - 2005 Vice-President Research of the Hamburg University of Technology
2000 – 2001 Dean of Mechanical Engineering, Hamburg University of Technology
1999 - 2004 Head of the Research Training Group "Ocean Engineering Structures"
Since 1997 Professor for Mechanics, Hamburg University of Technology
1996 - 1997 Head of the Department "CAE-Services" at IABG
1992 - 1996 Head of the Section "Acoustics, Wave propagation and Scientific Software" at IABG
1989 - 1992 Research Associate at IABG mbH, Ottobrunn
January 1988 - February 1989 Research Associate and Visiting Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Department of Civil Engineering), Cambridge, USA. Research Topic: Coupling of FEM and BEM
1987 - 1989 Postdoctoral Fellow with Prof. Dr. H. Antes, Ruhr-University Bochum (Grant by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
18.11.1986 Doctoral degree (Dr.-Ing., equivalent Ph.D.), Thesis Title: "On the calculation of the dynamical interaction between structures and their environment using transient boundary integrals", Ruhr-University Bochum
1983 - 1987 Research Fellow with Prof. Dr. H. Antes, Ruhr-University Bochum
25.08.1983 Diploma degree (Dipl.-Ing., equivalent M.Sc.)
1980 - 1983 Research Assistant with Prof. Dr. G. Schmid, Ruhr-University Bochum
1978 - 1983 Undergraduate studies in civil engineering,
Ruhr-University Bochum
Since 1983 More than 300 publications in the above mentioned research areas


Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg
Institut für Modellierung und Berechnung
Denickestraße 17
21073 Hamburg
estorff@tuhh.de

Numerical procedures, such as the finite element and boundary element methods, are known to be very suitable tools for the investigation of acoustic problems. It turned out, however, that early formulations of these methodologies are rather computer time consuming and therefore not used very often in practical applications. The contribution aims to give an overview of recent developments in the fields of FEM and BEM and of the resulting new possibilities to investigate real life problems in technical acoustics. In particular, the methodologies will be validated by representative measurements and some complex industrial applications will be discussed in detail. Finally, some future trends in modern computations and possible topics for further research will be addressed. All methods and developments treated in this contribution are introduced briefly and illustrated by examples which show how the approaches can be used and how accurate they are.



ROOM ACOUSTICS EFFECTS ON SPEECH COMPREHENSION OF ENGLISH-AS-SECOND-LANGUAGE TALKERS AND LISTENERS VERSUS NATIVE-ENGLISH-SPEAKING TALKERS AND LISTENERS

Lily Wang
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Dr. Lily Wang is a Professor of Architectural Engineering in the Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction, and Associate Dean for Graduate Programs and Faculty Development in the College of Engineering at the University of Nebraska – Lincoln. Dr. Wang received her BS in Civil Engineering from Princeton University and her PhD in Acoustics from Penn State University. Her research focuses on a variety of room acoustic and noise control topics, including classroom acoustics, human perception and performance in noise, and room acoustics computer modeling. She has published over 20 peer-reviewed papers and presented over 70 papers on these topics. Dr. Wang is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA); Board-Certified by the Institute of Noise Control Engineering; and a recipient of the ASA Hunt Postdoctoral Fellowship, ASA R. Bruce Lindsay Award, and ASHRAE Ralph G. Nevins Physiology and Human Environment Award. Recently she was elected Vice-President of the ASA for the 2015-16 term.

Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction
University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Approximately 21% of the children in the United States school system speak a language other than English at home, but are being taught in English at school. English is additionally being used more and more often as a common language in international settings, even though participants at these international events again are not native English speakers. How do adverse room acoustic environments, including higher background noise levels and longer reverberation times, impact English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) talkers and listeners versus native English talkers and listeners? This presentation focuses on two recent studies at the University of Nebraska that investigate how assorted room acoustic conditions impact English speech comprehension of ESL persons versus native-English-speaking persons. In the first study, the talkers were all native-English-speakers, and speech comprehension results are compared between ESL listeners and native-English-speaking listeners. In the second study, the talkers were all native-Mandarin-speakers, presenting in English. Speech comprehension results are compared between three groups then: native-English-speaking listeners, native-Mandarin-speaking listeners, and ESL listeners whose native language is not Mandarin. Results indicate that high background noise levels (greater than 50 dBA) negatively impact all listening groups, but have a greater detrimental effect on ESL listeners. In terms of reverberation time, native English speaking listeners are more capable of coping with longer reverberation, but such adverse conditions do still produce lower speech comprehension by ESL listeners.



SOUND FOCUSING AND ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

Semyung Wang
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Professor Wang has 30 years' research experience in the area of optimizing sound and vibration, modal test, sound quality, and sound focusing. He got BA, MS, and PhD degrees in Mechanical Engineering from Hanyang Univ, Korea (1980), Wayne State Univ, USA (1986), and Univ of Iowa, USA (1991). Since 2008, he has been Dean of the School of Mechatronics at GIST (Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology) in Korea. He has published over 200 international technical papers including 65 SCI journal papers and supervised over 70 graduate students. He developed and commercialized a Laser Scanning Vibrometer with EM4SYS in 2008. He hosted ICSV15 in Korea and served as Secretary of IIAV since 2009. He served as the vice president and the editor of KSME (Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers) in Dynamics and Control Division. He is the vice president of KSNVE (Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering) and also served as Director. He received an International Scientific Achievement Award in 2008 from KSNVE. He was the general chair of KSME Dynamics and Control Conference and international chair of 13th AIAA/ISSMO MAO (Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization) in 2010. In 2013, he received the Korean presidential medal for his scientific contribution.

School of Mechatronics
Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

Sound Focusing Technology is to project and/or capture sound of target region/direction by using array speakers and microphones. Sound Projection can be used for personal music for TV at home and navigation for cars. It can be also used at electric cars to give warning to passengers. Sound Capture is used at acoustic camera. Sound Projection and Capture enables detecting location of human and hidden fire. This allows warning of silent intruders and fire at home and office. Various Sound Focusing methods are introduced.